Cancer Lett. 2002 Nov 8;185(1):31-
Flaxseed inhibits metastasis and decreases extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer xenografts.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, ON, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Canada.
Angiogenesis is important in tumor growth, progression
and metastatic dissemination. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one key factor in promotion of breast cancer angiogenesis. VEGFs are bioactive in the extracellular space where they
become available to the endothelial cells. Phytoestrogens such as lignans have been shown to alter breast cancer incidence and be cancer-