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Cancer Lett. 2002 Nov 8;185(1):31-7.




Flaxseed inhibits metastasis and decreases extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer xenografts.


Dabrosin CChen JWang LThompson LU.




Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 150 College Street, ON, M5S 3E2, Toronto, Canada.




Angiogenesis is important in tumor growth, progression and metastatic dissemination. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one key factor in promotion of breast cancer angiogenesis. VEGFs are bioactive in the extracellular space where they become available to the endothelial cells. Phytoestrogens such as lignans have been shown to alter breast cancer incidence and be cancer-protective in rats. We show that supplementation of 10% flaxseed, the richest source of mammalian lignans, to nude mice with established human breast tumors reduced tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, flaxseed decreased extracellular levels of VEGF, which may be one mechanistic explanation to the decreased tumor growth and metastasis.



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